Std8 Science Syllabus

STANDARD EIGHT - STD8 SCIENCE SYLLABUS

Rev. Papers



UNIT 1.0     HUMAN BODY

TOPICS 1.1:
  1. Reproductive in Human Beings
  2. Excretory System
1.2    Specific Objectives
    By the end of this topic, the learner should be able to:
  1. explain fertilization in human beings
  2. discuss the development of the foetus
  3. describe the process of birth
  4. identify the main excretory organs and their waste products
1.3    Content
1.3.1    Fertilization
1.3.2    Foetal development
  • zygote
  • embryo
  • foetus
Hint:-Include the functions of placenta, umbilical cord and amniotic fluid
1.3.3    Process of birth
1.3.4    Excretory organs and waste products
  • skin (epidermis, dermis, sweat glands, waste product - sweat)
  • lungs (nose, trachea, waste product - carbon dioxide)
Hint:- Details of the structure of the lung, alveoli, exchange of  gases not required.
  • Kidney (external appearance of kidney, urethra, bladder, urethra waste product-urine)
Hint:- Names of blood vessels not required

UNIT 2.0:    HEALTH EDUCATION

TOPIC 2.1:
  1. Sexually transmitted infections
  2. Control of HIV and Aids
2.2    Specific Objectives
By the end of this topic, the learner should be able to:
  1. explain the meaning of sexually transmitted infections
  2. give examples of sexually transmitted infections
  3. describe cause and prevention of some sexually transmitted infections
  4. identify control measures for HIV and AIDS
2.3    Content
2.3.1    Meaning of sexually transmitted infections (STI's)
2.3.2    STI's, cause signs, symptoms and preventions of:
  • syphillis
  • gonorrhea
  • chaeroid
Hint:- details of causative organism not required
2.3.3.    Control measures for HIV and AIDS such as:
  • creating public awareness on HIV/AIDS
  • campaigns through various media
  • mass education
  • voluntary counseling and testing

UNIT 3.0:     PLANTS

TOPICS 3.1:
  1. adaptations of plants
  2. crop diseases
3.2    Specific Objectives
By the end of this topic, the learner should be able to:-
  1. explain how plants are adapted to their environments
  2. identify signs of unhealthy crops
  3. state effects of crop diseases 
3.3    Content
3.3.1    Adaptations of plants to their environment
  • dry areas
  • wet areas
3.3.2    Signs of Unhealthy crops
  • stunted growth
  • discolouration on growing leaves, ears, stem
  • curled leaves
  • wilting
  • spot/streaks
3.3.3    Effects of crop diseases
  • lower yields
  • reduced quality produce

UNIT 4.0:    ANIMALS

TOPICS 4.1:
  1. Adaptation of animals
  2. Livestock diseases
4.2    Specific Objectives
By the end of this topic, the learner should be able to:
  1. explain how animals adapt to the environment
  2. identify signs of ill health in livestock
  3. state effects of ill health
4.3    Content
4.3.1    Feeding habits of mammals (two examples of each)
  • herbivores
  • carnivores
  • omnivores
Hint:- structures of jaws and dental formula not required.
4.3.2    Adaptation of beaks of birds to feeding
  • grain eater (chicken)
  • filter feeder (duck)
  • flesh eater (eagle, hawk)
  • nectar feeder (Sunbird)
4.3.3    Movement
  • Flying (presence of wings and streamlined body)
  • Swimming (fins, webbed feet and streamlined body)
  • Hopping and leaping (strong hind legs)
4.3.4    Signs of ill health in livestock
  • stunted growth
  • loss of weight
  • reduced yields 
  • rough coat
  • coughing
  • blood in stool
4.3.5    Effects of livestock diseases
  • lower yields
  • reduced quality of products
  • transmission of diseases to human beings
  • death

UNIT 5.0:    WATER

TOPICS 5.1:
  1. Soft and Hard water
  2. Softening hard water
5.2    Specific Objectives
By the end of this topic, the learner should be able to:
  1. state the difference between soft and hard water
  2. investigate disadvantages of hard water
  3. soften hard water by boiling
5.3 Content
5.3.1    Difference between soft and hard water (lathering only)
5.3.2    Disadvantages of hard water
5.3.3     Softening hard water by boiling

UNIT 6.0:    ENVIRONMENT

TOPICS 6.1:
  1. Soil pollution
  2. Soil Conservation
  3. Air Pollution
6.2    Specific Objectives
By the end of this topic, the learner should be able to:-
  1. explain meaning of soil pollution
  2. describe effects of soil pollution on the environment
  3. explain the meaning of  soil conservation
  4. describe soil conservation methods
  5. practice soil  conservation
  6. describe how air gets polluted
  7. state effects of air pollution
  8. identify ways in which air pollution can be controlled
  9. appreciate the need to maintain and use the resources in the environment wisely.
6.3    Content
6.3.1    Meaning of soil pollution
6.3.2    Effects of soil pollution
  • on plants
  • on animals (small animals in soil and bacteria)
6.3.3.    Meaning of soil conservation
6.3.4    Soil conservation methods
  • avid excess use of fertilizers and pesticides
  • avoid dumping of industrial waste on soil
  • avoid burning vegetation cover
  • mulching
  • cover crops
  • terracing
  • contour farming
  • tree planting
  • gabions
  • controlled grazing/proper stocking
6.3.5    Ways in which air is polluted
  • smoking cigarettes
  • burning tyres and plastics materials
  • gases from vehicle exhausts
  • spraying farm chemicals
  • aerosol sprays
  • industrial waste gases
6.3.6    Effects of air pollution
  • on plants
  • on animals
  • on non-living things (damaging roofs made of corrugated iron sheets)
6.3.7    Ways of controlling air pollution
  • not smoking
  • not burning tyres and plastic materials
  • driving with well maintained engines
  • reducing use of farm chemicals
  • avoiding use of harmful aerosol sprays
  • treating waste industrial gases to make them safe

UNIT 7.0: FOODS AND NUTRITION

TOPICS 7.1:
  1. Nutritional requirements for special groups
  2. Food poisoning
7.2    Specific Objectives
By the end of this topic, the learner should be able to:-
  1. identify nutritional requirements for special groups 
  2. name causes of food poisoning
  3. prevent food poisoning 
7.3    Content
7.3.1    Nutrition for pregnant and lactating mothers
7.3.2    Nutrition for infants
  • value of breast milk
7.3.3    Nutrition for people with HIV/AIDS
7.3.4    Causes of food poisoning
  • chemicals
  • micro-organisms (bacteria, viruses).
Hint:- details of procedures and names of chemicals and other poisoning agents not required.
7.3.5    Ways of preventing food poisoning

UNIT 8.0: ENERGY

TOPICS 8.1:
  1. Meaning of Energy
  2. Transformation of energy
  3. Conservation of energy
8.2    Specific Objectives
By the end of this topic, the learner should be able to:-
  1. explain what energy is
  2. describe the different types of energy
  3. describe transformation of energy
  4. state methods of conserving energy
  5. appreciate the need to conserve energy
8.3    Content
8.3.1    Meaning of Energy
8.3.2    Different types of energy
  • chemical
  • heat
  • light
  • magnetic
  • electricity
  • sound
8.3.3    Transformation of energy
  • electric circuit
  • food
  • burning fuels
  • radio
  • simple electromagnet
8.3.4    Methods of conserving energy
  • using energy sparingly
  • using energy efficient devices
  • using renewable energy (wind, sun, biogas, planting trees)

UNIT 9.0:    MAKING WORK EASIER

TOPIC 9.1: Simple Machines
9.2    Specific Objectives
By the end of this topic, the learner should be able to:
  1. investigate how inclined planes make work easier
  2. investigate how single fixed pulleys make work easier.
9.3    Content
9.3.1    Inclined planes
  • Ladder
  • Staircase
  • A road winding up a hill
9.3.2    Single fixed pulley
  • Uses of single fixed pulleys such as on the flag post

Teaching/ Learning Experiences

  • Observation
  • Demonstration
  • Discussion
  • Question and Answer
  • Drawing
  • Practicals
  • Projects
  • Visits
  • Nature walks
  • Modelling
NB: Learners should be more exposed to carry out most of the activities so that they can gain scientific skills such as
  • Observation
  • classifying
  • Estimating
  • Measuring
  • Predicting
  • Recording
  • Analyzing, interpreting and organizing data
  • Identifying variables
  • Designing experiments

Resources

  • Real items
    • living things - plants and animals
    • Non-living things such as:
      • Metals- batteries, wires, nails and tins
      • non-metals- wood, charcoal, plastics, rubber, paper, glass, fibres, soap bulbs and candles
      • Liquids- water, ink, milk, kerosine
  • Posters
  • Charts
  • Pictures
  • Photographs
  • Audio tapes
  • Video tapes
  • Films
  • Environment
  • Guest Speaker

Assessment

  Continuous assessment of the pupils is necessary during the coverage of the science course. This will enable the teacher to identify the slow and quick learners and offer the assistance required. The assessment will also tell the teacher whether or not the objectives of the course are being achieved.
some of the methods that the teacher can use to assess pupils are:
  1. Observation
The teacher observes pupils at work either individually or in groups, This method is the most common in lower primary classes where pupils have nor learnt how to write. the teacher should also assess the finished products made by pupils and award marks
Through observation, the teacher can also tell which skills pupils have acquire. Observation should also be done by the teacher to check on the pupils development of attitudes.
  1. Oral Questioning
The teacher should carefully plan questions to ask pupils. These should include recall type as well as higher level of thinking  e.g. reasoning  and evaluation questions
  1. Written tests/examinations
The teacher should always mark pupils' written work and go over the corrections with them
  1. Project Work
This should be assessed by the teacher and marks awarded to groups or individuals. Whatever method of assessment the teacher uses, he/she should always have the child at the centre of his/her planning
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